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這幾大因素,讓Z世代難以積累財富

這幾大因素,讓Z世代難以積累財富

IVANA PINO 2022-10-22
46%的這代人是月光族。

Z世代是指出生于1997年至2012年之間的人。圖片來源:《財富》;原圖由蓋蒂圖片社提供

在積累財富方面,每一代人的軌跡都略有不同,這受到經濟變化、數字進步和文化規范變化的影響。美國最年輕和最新的工薪階層——Z世代剛剛開始嶄露頭角,并開始增加自己的凈資產。

Z世代的平均凈資產

Z世代(簡稱Gen Z)是指出生于1997年至2012年之間的人。這一代人中年齡最大的成員即將年滿25歲,他們正積極參加工作,成為房主,組建家庭,并創辦自己的企業。這一代人中最年輕的只有10歲。

大多數Z世代的財富積累之旅才剛剛開始,部分原因是許多人還沒有參加工作,而那些參加工作的人還沒有進入黃金收入期。

根據美聯儲2019年消費者財務調查,35歲以下的美國人(包括千禧一代和Z世代)的平均凈資產為7.6萬美元。

Z世代的凈資產與其他世代相比如何?

與老一輩人相比,Z世代的平均凈資產并不高。35歲以上的千禧一代平均資產超過40萬美元。X世代的平均凈資產在40萬到83.3萬美元之間,而包括嬰兒潮一代和沉默一代在內的老一輩人的平均凈資產則達到了數百萬美元。

Z世代的平均凈資產是所有世代中最低的,這不足為奇,因為他們中只有少數人參加工作,而且入門級工作的工資通常較低。收入較低導致儲蓄和投資較少。德勤公司(Deloitte)最近發布的一份報告發現,46%的Z世代過著月光族的生活,超過四分之一的Z世代對自己能否舒適地退休沒有信心。根據GoBankingRates最近的研究,Z世代員工的典型年薪因州而異,但2021年所有州的平均水平為3.25萬美元。

“對于許多人來說,二十多歲是他們開始職業生涯和可能開始新職業生涯的時期。他們的收入潛力可能有限,這可能會讓他們很難在這十年里建立凈資產?!盤ersonal Capital公司的注冊理財規劃師保羅?迪爾(Paul Deer)說。

這一代人中的許多人也把投資放在了次要位置。美國銀行(Bank of America)的一項調查顯示,近40%的人沒有進行投資,主要原因包括沒有多余的資金(44%)、不知道從哪里開始(31%)和感覺投資風險太大(23%)。同一項調查還發現,雖然一些Z世代優先考慮擁有住房,這通常被吹捧為建立凈資產的關鍵方式,但大多數人由于房價飆升和日常成本上升而推遲成為房主。

是什么塑造了Z世代的凈資產和財務前景?

有幾大因素影響了這一代人建立和增加凈資產的能力。經濟低迷、創紀錄的通貨膨脹率、不斷上升的教育成本和工資停滯,這些因素都給積累財富造成了重大障礙。

Z世代仍是職場新人

許多Z世代的人年齡較?。哼@一代人中有一半未滿18歲,三分之二仍在上學或上大學,只有四分之一的Z世代人達到了工作年齡。即使對于那些參加工作的人來說,他們在職業生涯和賺取入門級薪水方面可能仍在努力站穩腳跟。

瑞銀集團(UBS)駐帕薩迪納的財務顧問理查德?伯坦(Richard Bertain)表示:“千禧一代和Z世代處于賺錢、儲蓄和積累的早期階段。儲蓄情況似乎參差不齊,在許多情況下,他們還沒養成儲蓄的習慣?!?

大蕭條為Z世代的理財定下了基調

雖然最年長的Z世代在2007-2009年經濟衰退期間只有十幾歲,但許多人仍記得看著他們的哥哥姐姐們一邊努力找工作,一邊還著巨額學生貸款。因此,研究表明,盡管與老一輩人相比, Z世代人為退休儲蓄較少,但他們的儲蓄占其收入的比重較大。Z世代為退休儲蓄的中位數是收入的20%,而千禧一代為收入的15%。

不過,在設定財務目標時,尚未結婚和尚未成家的Z世代工作人士傾向于優先考慮更直接的目標,如償還信用卡、學生貸款和建立應急基金,而不是為退休儲蓄。

Z世代的學生貸款債務比前幾代人更多

根據美國教育部的一項分析,聯邦學生貸款債務累計達到1.6萬億美元,超過4500萬貸款人的債務還在增加。美聯儲的數據顯示,Z世代的學生債務平均為20,900美元,比千禧一代高出13%。7.7%的Z世代學生債務余額超過5萬美元。

因此,一些Z世代人已經推遲了重大里程碑,如買房、組建家庭,或為退休投資。某些措施,如一次性學生貸款豁免計劃,給Z世代帶來了希望,他們將有更多的可支配收入來實現未來的財務里程碑,但并不是所有的學生貸款借款人都能從這個計劃中受益,一些Z世代的余額遠遠超過最高豁免額。

新冠肺炎疫情預計將對這一代人產生長期影響

對于許多Z世代人來說,疫情帶來了他們一生中第二次重大經濟危機,這場危機仍在對他們的個人財務狀況造成嚴重破壞,其全面影響還有待觀察。喬治敦大學的一份報告發現,25%的Z世代成年人(18-23歲)在疫情前就沒有儲蓄,據報告,自從疫情爆發以來,他們要么花光了儲蓄,要么推遲儲蓄或償還債務。

Z世代人可以通過3種方式建立凈資產

好消息是:Z世代有充裕的時間來建立凈資產。而建立并維持龐大的凈資產,就需要在現在做出積極的財務選擇,這些選擇將在未來帶來回報。以下是步入正軌的幾種方法:

1. 優先考慮償還債務和儲蓄。高債務余額,尤其是高息債務,會妨礙實現其他財務目標。專家表示,要盡早養成良好的儲蓄習慣,并隨著年齡的增長和收入的增加繼續保持這些習慣,這會讓你終身受益。

“較高的收入很容易被抵押貸款、汽車貸款、育兒費用和奢侈消費吞噬,比如愉快的度假體驗和豪華晚餐。相反,重要的是保持前十年建立的儲蓄和投資原則,如果可能的話,甚至提升收入的儲蓄比例?!钡蠣栒f。

2. 創業精神。創業可能是關鍵的財富驅動力,一些Z世代已經注意到了這一點。朝九晚五的疲勞、無與倫比的社交媒體技能以及日益增強的社會意識結合起來,正促使Z世代拋棄傳統的企業工作環境,轉而自己創業。微軟公司(Microsoft)2022年的一項調查發現,超過60%的Z世代已經開始或打算開始創業。

3. 早點開始投資。一些專家建議留出稅后收入的15%-25%用于投資,盡管這對每個人來說可能有點不同。然而,你越早開始投資,即使只有幾美元,由于復利,你的資金就有更多的時間增長,從而使你受益。

迪爾說:“關鍵是養成良好的財務習慣,并堅持原則,這將有助于你在余生建立更多凈資產?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

編者注:本文中包含的建議、意見或排名出自Fortune Recommends?編輯團隊。本內容未經任何合作伙伴或其他第三方審查,也未得到任何合作伙伴或其他第三方認可。

譯者:中慧言-王芳

在積累財富方面,每一代人的軌跡都略有不同,這受到經濟變化、數字進步和文化規范變化的影響。美國最年輕和最新的工薪階層——Z世代剛剛開始嶄露頭角,并開始增加自己的凈資產。

Z世代的平均凈資產

Z世代(簡稱Gen Z)是指出生于1997年至2012年之間的人。這一代人中年齡最大的成員即將年滿25歲,他們正積極參加工作,成為房主,組建家庭,并創辦自己的企業。這一代人中最年輕的只有10歲。

大多數Z世代的財富積累之旅才剛剛開始,部分原因是許多人還沒有參加工作,而那些參加工作的人還沒有進入黃金收入期。

根據美聯儲2019年消費者財務調查,35歲以下的美國人(包括千禧一代和Z世代)的平均凈資產為7.6萬美元。

Z世代的凈資產與其他世代相比如何?

與老一輩人相比,Z世代的平均凈資產并不高。35歲以上的千禧一代平均資產超過40萬美元。X世代的平均凈資產在40萬到83.3萬美元之間,而包括嬰兒潮一代和沉默一代在內的老一輩人的平均凈資產則達到了數百萬美元。

Z世代的平均凈資產是所有世代中最低的,這不足為奇,因為他們中只有少數人參加工作,而且入門級工作的工資通常較低。收入較低導致儲蓄和投資較少。德勤公司(Deloitte)最近發布的一份報告發現,46%的Z世代過著月光族的生活,超過四分之一的Z世代對自己能否舒適地退休沒有信心。根據GoBankingRates最近的研究,Z世代員工的典型年薪因州而異,但2021年所有州的平均水平為3.25萬美元。

“對于許多人來說,二十多歲是他們開始職業生涯和可能開始新職業生涯的時期。他們的收入潛力可能有限,這可能會讓他們很難在這十年里建立凈資產?!盤ersonal Capital公司的注冊理財規劃師保羅?迪爾(Paul Deer)說。

這一代人中的許多人也把投資放在了次要位置。美國銀行(Bank of America)的一項調查顯示,近40%的人沒有進行投資,主要原因包括沒有多余的資金(44%)、不知道從哪里開始(31%)和感覺投資風險太大(23%)。同一項調查還發現,雖然一些Z世代優先考慮擁有住房,這通常被吹捧為建立凈資產的關鍵方式,但大多數人由于房價飆升和日常成本上升而推遲成為房主。

是什么塑造了Z世代的凈資產和財務前景?

有幾大因素影響了這一代人建立和增加凈資產的能力。經濟低迷、創紀錄的通貨膨脹率、不斷上升的教育成本和工資停滯,這些因素都給積累財富造成了重大障礙。

Z世代仍是職場新人

許多Z世代的人年齡較?。哼@一代人中有一半未滿18歲,三分之二仍在上學或上大學,只有四分之一的Z世代人達到了工作年齡。即使對于那些參加工作的人來說,他們在職業生涯和賺取入門級薪水方面可能仍在努力站穩腳跟。

瑞銀集團(UBS)駐帕薩迪納的財務顧問理查德?伯坦(Richard Bertain)表示:“千禧一代和Z世代處于賺錢、儲蓄和積累的早期階段。儲蓄情況似乎參差不齊,在許多情況下,他們還沒養成儲蓄的習慣?!?

大蕭條為Z世代的理財定下了基調

雖然最年長的Z世代在2007-2009年經濟衰退期間只有十幾歲,但許多人仍記得看著他們的哥哥姐姐們一邊努力找工作,一邊還著巨額學生貸款。因此,研究表明,盡管與老一輩人相比, Z世代人為退休儲蓄較少,但他們的儲蓄占其收入的比重較大。Z世代為退休儲蓄的中位數是收入的20%,而千禧一代為收入的15%。

不過,在設定財務目標時,尚未結婚和尚未成家的Z世代工作人士傾向于優先考慮更直接的目標,如償還信用卡、學生貸款和建立應急基金,而不是為退休儲蓄。

Z世代的學生貸款債務比前幾代人更多

根據美國教育部的一項分析,聯邦學生貸款債務累計達到1.6萬億美元,超過4500萬貸款人的債務還在增加。美聯儲的數據顯示,Z世代的學生債務平均為20,900美元,比千禧一代高出13%。7.7%的Z世代學生債務余額超過5萬美元。

因此,一些Z世代人已經推遲了重大里程碑,如買房、組建家庭,或為退休投資。某些措施,如一次性學生貸款豁免計劃,給Z世代帶來了希望,他們將有更多的可支配收入來實現未來的財務里程碑,但并不是所有的學生貸款借款人都能從這個計劃中受益,一些Z世代的余額遠遠超過最高豁免額。

新冠肺炎疫情預計將對這一代人產生長期影響

對于許多Z世代人來說,疫情帶來了他們一生中第二次重大經濟危機,這場危機仍在對他們的個人財務狀況造成嚴重破壞,其全面影響還有待觀察。喬治敦大學的一份報告發現,25%的Z世代成年人(18-23歲)在疫情前就沒有儲蓄,據報告,自從疫情爆發以來,他們要么花光了儲蓄,要么推遲儲蓄或償還債務。

Z世代人可以通過3種方式建立凈資產

好消息是:Z世代有充裕的時間來建立凈資產。而建立并維持龐大的凈資產,就需要在現在做出積極的財務選擇,這些選擇將在未來帶來回報。以下是步入正軌的幾種方法:

1. 優先考慮償還債務和儲蓄。高債務余額,尤其是高息債務,會妨礙實現其他財務目標。專家表示,要盡早養成良好的儲蓄習慣,并隨著年齡的增長和收入的增加繼續保持這些習慣,這會讓你終身受益。

“較高的收入很容易被抵押貸款、汽車貸款、育兒費用和奢侈消費吞噬,比如愉快的度假體驗和豪華晚餐。相反,重要的是保持前十年建立的儲蓄和投資原則,如果可能的話,甚至提升收入的儲蓄比例?!钡蠣栒f。

2. 創業精神。創業可能是關鍵的財富驅動力,一些Z世代已經注意到了這一點。朝九晚五的疲勞、無與倫比的社交媒體技能以及日益增強的社會意識結合起來,正促使Z世代拋棄傳統的企業工作環境,轉而自己創業。微軟公司(Microsoft)2022年的一項調查發現,超過60%的Z世代已經開始或打算開始創業。

3. 早點開始投資。一些專家建議留出稅后收入的15%-25%用于投資,盡管這對每個人來說可能有點不同。然而,你越早開始投資,即使只有幾美元,由于復利,你的資金就有更多的時間增長,從而使你受益。

迪爾說:“關鍵是養成良好的財務習慣,并堅持原則,這將有助于你在余生建立更多凈資產?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

編者注:本文中包含的建議、意見或排名出自Fortune Recommends?編輯團隊。本內容未經任何合作伙伴或其他第三方審查,也未得到任何合作伙伴或其他第三方認可。

譯者:中慧言-王芳

When it comes to building wealth, each generation is on a slightly different trajectory, shaped by a changing economy, digital advances, and shifting cultural norms. The youngest and newest working Americans—Generation Z—are just beginning to make their mark and grow their own net worths.

Average net worth of Generation Z

Generation Z, or Gen Z, is made up of individuals born between 1997 and 2012. The oldest members of this generation are turning 25, and are actively participating in the workforce, becoming homeowners, starting families, and launching their own businesses. The youngest members of this generation are just 10 years old.

Most Gen Zers are still at the very start of their wealth-building journey, due in part to the fact that many have still not joined the workforce, and those who are working have not yet entered their prime earning years.

According to the Federal Reserve’s 2019 Survey of Consumer Finances, Americans under age 35 (a mix of millennials and Gen Zers) have an average net worth of $76,000.

How does Gen Z’s net worth compare to other generations?

Compared to older generations, the average Gen Zer’s net worth falls short. The average millennial over age 35 stands at over $400,000. Those in Generation X have average net worths between $400,000 and $833,000, and older generations including Baby Boomers and the Silent Generation have average net worths that creep into the millions.

It’s not a surprise that Gen Z has the lowest average net worth of all the generations since there’s only a small number of them in the workforce, and entry-level jobs usually have lower salaries. Lower earnings have translated to lower savings and investment contributions. A recent report released by Deloitte found that 46% of Gen Zers are living paycheck-to-paycheck and over a quarter of Gen Zers are not confident that they will be able to retire comfortably. The typical annual salary for Generation Z workers varies from state to state, but the average across all states was $32,500 in 2021, according to recent research by GoBankingRates.

“For many people, the twenties are the time in their life when they are starting their professional lives and possibly a new career. Their earning potential may be somewhat limited, which might make it seem difficult to build net worth during this decade,” says Paul Deer, a certified financial planner at Personal Capital.

Investing has also been put on the backburner by many in this generation. Nearly 40% have no investments, and the top reasons for not investing include having no additional funds to spare (44%), not knowing where to start (31%) and feeling investing is too risky (23%), according to a Bank of America Survey. The same survey found that while some Gen Zers are prioritizing homeownership, which is often touted as a key way to build net worth, the majority are holding off on becoming homeowners due to surging home prices and rising everyday costs.

What has shaped Gen Z’s net worth and financial future?

Several factors have played a role in this generation’s ability to build and grow their net worths. A combination of economic downturns, record-breaking inflation, rising educational costs, and stagnant wages have all created significant barriers to building wealth.

Gen Z is still new to the workforce

Many Gen Zers are younger: half of this generation are still under the age of 18, two-thirds are still of school or college-age, and just a quarter of Gen Zers are of working age. Even for those participating in the workforce, they’re likely still gaining their footing when it comes to their professional careers and earning entry-level salaries.

“Millennial and Gen Z are earlier in the earning, saving, and accumulating phase,” says Richard Bertain, a Pasadena-based financial advisor for UBS. “Savings seems to be spotty and the habit of saving, in many instances, hasn’t become a habit yet.”

The Great Recession set the tone for Gen Z’s money management

While the oldest Gen Zers were just pre-teens during the 2007-2009 recession, many still remember watching older siblings struggle to find jobs while paying off big student loans. As a result, studies show that even though Gen Zers are saving less for retirement compared to older generations, they are saving a larger portion of their income. Gen Z sets aside a median 20% of their income for retirement, compared to a median 15% contribution from millennials.

Still, when it comes to setting financial goals, working Gen Zers who are not yet married and haven’t started families tend to prioritize more immediate goals like paying down credit cards, student loans, and building their emergency funds over saving for retirement.

Gen Z has more student loan debt than previous generations

According to a Department of Education analysis, the cumulative federal student loan debt stands at $1.6 trillion and rising for more than 45 million borrowers. Gen Zers have, on average, $20,900 in student debt—that’s 13% more than millennials, according to the Fed. And 7.7% of Gen Zers have balances over $50,000.

As a result, some Gen Zers have put off major milestones like purchasing a home, starting a family, or investing for retirement. Certain measures like the one-time student loan forgiveness program have given Gen Zers hope that they’ll have more available income to fund future financial milestones, but not all student loan borrowers will benefit from this program and some Gen Zers have balances that far exceed the maximum forgiveness amount.

The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have long-term effects on this generation

For many Gen Zers, the pandemic ushered in the second major economic crisis in their lifetimes, one that is still wreaking havoc on their personal finances and the full effects of which are yet to be seen. One report by Georgetown University found that 25% of Gen Z adults (ages 18-23), who were already lacking in savings pre-pandemic, reported having either spent their savings or delayed saving or paying off debt since the pandemic hit.

3 ways Gen Zers can build their net worth

The good news: Gen Zers have time on their side. And building and maintaining a strong net worth is all about making positive financial choices now that will pay off later on. A few ways to get on track:

1. Prioritize paying down debt and saving: High debt balances, and especially high-interest debt, can get in the way of achieving other financial goals. Experts say building good savings habits early and continuing to implement those as you age and earn more money can make all the difference.

“It can be easy for higher earnings to get swallowed up in mortgage and car payments, child-rearing expenses, and splurging on a few luxuries like nice vacations and fancy dinners. Instead, it’s important to maintain the saving and investing disciplines that were established in the previous decade and even increase the percentage of income saved, if possible,” says Deer.

2. Entrepreneurship: Starting your own business can be a key wealth-driver, and some Gen Zers have already taken note. A combination of 9-to-5 fatigue, unparalleled social media skills, and an increased sense of social awareness are driving Gen Zers to ditch traditional corporate work environments for their own start-ups. A 2022 survey by Microsoft found that more than 60% of Gen Zers have started—or intend to start—their own business.

3. Investing early: Some experts recommend setting aside anywhere from 15%-25% of your after-tax income for investing, although this could look a little different for everyone. However, the earlier you start investing, even if it’s only a few dollars, the more time your money has to grow and work for you thanks to compound interest.

“The key is establishing good financial habits and disciplines that will help you build net worth over the rest of your life,” says Deer.

EDITORIAL DISCLOSURE: The advice, opinions, or rankings contained in this article are solely those of the Fortune Recommends?editorial team. This content has not been reviewed or endorsed by any of our affiliate partners or other third parties.

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